Planet Tracker identifies countries dependent on nature for their exports and analyses what they have in common

Sovereign Risk, Financial Risk & Reward, Fixed Income

With natural capital and biodiversity rising up the global agenda, Planet Tracker examines countries’ dependence on nature and the implications for financial markets

London, 6 October 2022: Financial markets need to understand international trade’s dependence on nature: around 40% of total annual world trade is nature dependent, financial think tank Planet Tracker’s latest report highlights.

For some countries, more than 80% of exports are dependent on natural resources. This raises questions about how well this natural capital is looked after, since sovereigns’ economies depend on it.

By presenting a new metric of countries’ nature dependence based on trade, Planet Tracker reveals not only the scale of certain economies’ dependency on nature, but also the results of this dependency. Understanding this is crucial to reducing export risks as climate change accelerates as well as building sustainable economies for nature-dependent exporters.

The report:

Classifies world exports into those dependent on nature – both renewable (like agricultural, forestry and seafood products) and non-renewable (such as oil, minerals, metals, ores etc) and those which are not.

Divides countries into high, medium and low nature dependent exporters.

Examines countries with high dependency, by looking at common characteristics based on a few broad measures, including credit ratings, GDP per capita, economic inequality, food security, soil erosion and climate resilience. It then explores threats to those resources and the exposure certain countries face when their traded resources are threatened. It also adds to growing evidence challenging the so-called ‘resource curse’ or ‘paradox of plenty’.

Some of the report’s key findings include:

  • Countries with a high dependency on renewable resources generally have poorer credit ratings than countries with medium to low dependency.
  • Countries with a high dependency on non-renewable resources, notably those with well-established oil wealth and good governance, are much more likely to have strong credit ratings.
  • Economic, political, financial and technological improvements lead countries to become less dependent on natural resources and more dependent on production- or service-based economies.
  • Political instability is a likely result of non-renewable resource extraction.
  • Less inequality and greater GDP per capita levels can lead to decreases in renewable exports.


John Willis, Director of Research at Planet Tracker, adds: “Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has pushed the international trade of natural resources – such as oil, gas and wheat – to the top of the international agenda. But there are other systemic risks associated with the trade of natural resources that long pre-date the invasion. No country is immune to the challenges that nature is now facing, and the pressures they place on our world’s ecosystems are often out of sight, out of mind and, as a result, underregulated. Our latest paper shines a light on major issues relating to the international trade of natural resources in key areas and the avoidable risks to society they present.”

The underlying data of the report can be examined in further detail at the Planet Tracker NDE Interactive Dashboard (link).




Planet Tracker is a non-profit financial think tank producing analytics and reports to align capital markets with planetary boundaries. Our mission is to create significant and irreversible transformation of global financial activities by 2030. By informing, enabling and mobilising the transformative power of capital markets we aim to deliver a financial system that is fully aligned with a net-zero, nature-positive economy. Planet Tracker proactively engages with financial institutions to drive change in their investment strategies. We ensure they know exactly what risk is built into their investments and identify opportunities from funding the systems transformations we advocate.


Media contact

Ophelia Jeffrey

Aspectus Group

+44 7584 657646